By Miriam Bogler October 25,2016
When employees are working on a project at the workplace,it is directed to achieve a goal. This goal is usually laced with a series of problems that workers have to tackle before success is achieved. Whether the goal is to produce a part for an engineering project or to develop a marketing plan for a company,the employee is expected to deliver a product that accurately addresses the problem. Any misguided attempt can lead to big losses in productivity and the bottom line. This is why the problem solving part is the most essential step in the entire project and workplaces make sure that employees have the skills,tools,and guidelines to complete the task successfully. By 2020,about four in ten or 91 million Americans will be engaged in project-based work. Yet plenty of evidence exists that schools efforts to transform education towards a more project-based direction,is failing to deliver the most crucial part,how to go about solving the problems that are at the heart of a successful conclusion.
The Buck Institute’s approach to problem solving
The Buck Institute for Education,considered by many as the standard bearers of project-based learning,created the “Gold Standard PBL,” which consists of six essential design elements necessary for a successful project:challenging problem or question,sustained inquiry,authenticity,student voice and choice,reflection,critique and revision. Although each very important for a successful PBL experience,most of these PBL design elements are not focused on how to help students solve the problem. Some of these elements deal with project prerequisites,such as making sure that the question is challenging and can be investigated,that the project is authentic and that students have a say in it. Other elements are dealing with project conclusions,such as the critique,revision and reflection on the outcome. Sustained inquiry is the only element that tries to deal with the problem solving process,and it tries to do so by guiding students to come up with a series of iterative questions,that they will answer as they attempt to solve the problem. No mention how. It is assumed that students will somehow figure out how to ask the right questions and that they will come up with the right refining questions,that may lead them towards the right solutions. Continue reading Why is problem solving left out when practicing Project-Based Learning
By Miriam Bogler September 13,2016
Schools are adopting project-based learning in growing numbers. Although it may seem like a trend,it really stems from a development in pedagogical thinking over the past fifty years that advocated a shift away from teachers imparting knowledge to relatively passive students,to learners actively participating in the co-construction of knowledge. Being a complete departure from traditional ways of teaching,implementation is difficult for multiple reasons,the most difficult of which have to do with teachers and students adapting to this new type of learning. However,even in the most forward looking school with well adapted teachers and students,projects are doomed to fail if schools and teachers did not prepare students to work collaboratively.
What is Collaboration
Collaboration is a joint intellectual effort of students,teachers and community members to explore a problem and build understanding. For a collaboration to work well,there needs to be an emphasis on equality,mutuality and the creation of meaning that leads to better understanding. Members of the group should contribute equally to the project and make sure that they never lose track of the mutual goals of the project and that their combined effort generates meaning and improves student understanding of the project. Creating a group atmosphere where these rules can be followed by all group members,should be a top goal for teachers if they want their group work experience to succeed.
Creating a Collaborative Environment
Collaboration doesn’t just happen. Teachers need to invest a lot of thinking and work in making sure that a collaborative environment is created. Since students are not accustomed to this type of learning,a gradual introduction of group work over the course of an entire year while involving students in as many group experiences as possible,is essential to guarantee that collaboration will be successful. In guiding students how to work collaboratively,a teacher needs to consider group composition,how to develop collaborative skills,how to build trust and communication skills. Continue reading How to Improve Students’Collaboration Skills
by Miriam Bogler 8/18/2016
According to the Buck Institute for Education,there is forty years of accumulated evidence that the instructional strategies and procedures that make up standard-focused project-based learning are effective in building deep content understanding,raising academic achievement and encouraging student motivation to learn. Evidence that have greatly contributed to a growing number of schools adopting or considering to adopt PBL. When looked at more carefully,the number of schools that are successfully implementing the method is quite small (1%). In most cases,schools attempts to use PBL,leads them to give up on the experience altogether. In this series of blog entries,I will try to look at the challenges of PBL implementation and discuss ways to improve student and teacher experiences,that can eventually lead to success.
What is project-based learning
Project-based learning is difficult to define because the term is broad and far reaching. It is sometimes used interchangeably with Problem-based learning or included under other umbrella terminologies,such as the inquiry-based approach. The main elements of the approach,which values “learning by doing”,center on students looking for solutions to non-trivial problems by asking and refining questions,debating ideas,making predictions,designing and planning experiments,collecting and analyzing data,drawing conclusions,communicating ideas to others,and creating artifacts. Other key features include collaboration between students,and multi-discipline investigations that relate to the real world. Advantages include the development of 21st century skills,improved academic achievement,self-discipline and increased motivation to learn.
What are the main challenges
Practicing project-based learning at school,aligns what students are learning with the needs of the modern workplace,making it a desirable objective for schools to pursue. Yet,a large number of failed attempts lead a growing number of teachers to give up on the practice altogether. The two most significant challenges are teamwork,an important skill that holds the potential for conflict and free-riding by students,and the difficulty experienced by teachers and students in adapting to non-traditional teaching and learning roles. Other important challenges include demanding workloads for teachers and students,superficial gain of content knowledge,lack of clear implementation guidelines,lack of focus on identified learning outcomes,a lack of trained personnel that can lead PBL,and lack of adequate professional development to train PBL. Continue reading Implementing Project-Based Learning:Challenges and Solutions
by Miriam Bogler August 4,2016
For many years I was teaching students computer programming. I was really fascinated with LCSI’s Microworlds and Hypercard because both provided students with a multimedia environment where students could become creators of digital products. Most projects focused on a real problem that students were trying to solve and they used built-in text,graphics,media and programming tools to accomplish their task. Having Logo and Hypertalk as part of those applications,helped students create animated stories and simulations,that students could later manipulate and draw conclusions from. Systems such as these are not only offering students the opportunity to learn how to code,but also a deep understanding of the underlying concepts they encounter while trying to create an original product that comes with a set of problems they need to solve. Although this happened a few years back,I was reminded of it when I read this month’s Scientific American article titled:“Coding for All:Is It a Smart Goal for Schools,” in which the author ponders over the value of teaching programming to all school children.
Is Programming the solution
Silicon Valley and the business world in general have long ago alerted the nation to a growing shortage of workers possessing a certain set of skills that are in high demand. Called 21st century skills,the concept encapsulates a whole set of skills,amongst which are:problem solving,critical thinking,and deep analytical skills. The argument goes that since these skills are absolutely essential to the modern workplace,students need to be introduced to learning experiences that can help them develop those skills. One of these learning experiences is programming. Although programming was introduced in the 1970s and 1980s,when Logo programming was invented by Seymour Papert,it was later abandoned by most schools claiming that it was difficult to teach and only necessary for those who are interested to become programmers.
As it turns out,history tends to repeat itself. In an effort to address industry’s call for qualified workers,the school system is finally making a huge effort to make programming an essential part of its curriculum. Most schools understand that if they have not addressed it yet,they must. Those that are still not sure whether they should step in,have good reasons to fear the effort. There is a huge lack of qualified teachers that understand and can teach programming. Training for teachers is scarce and there is no official curriculum they can follow. In most cases they need to invent the curriculum themselves. A situation that makes teaching coding for all less feasible,generating new doubts whether programming should really be part of what every student needs to learn. Continue reading Can Teaching Coding Close the Skills Gap
By Miriam Bogler July 19,2016
Education is flooded with buzzwords. Those usually represent trending methods or subjects that everyone is talking about,due to their potential to transform education. Some of those words are project-based learning,problem-based learning,critical thinking,21st century skills,and deep learning. These words are interesting because everyone is talking about them and try to do them in their schools,yet no one knows exactly what they really mean and how to best implement them. The pursuit to engage in them has a powerful driving force –the shifting needs of the new digital economy,dictating a new set of skills,that schools are still trying to figure out how to teach.
The Skills Gap
As time goes by,the urgency to close this skills gap increases. In an article published by the Seattle Times recently,titled:“Deeper Learning:More crucial than ever,and yet too rare,” the reporter attending an Education Writers Association conference,was informed by Harvard Graduate School of Education associate professor,Jahl Mehta,to the need of mastering deep learning because,he said: “The economy has shifted….these are skills that everyone needs.” In a 2011 report by McKinsey &Company,they claim that the use of big data will create huge growth opportunities,that might fail to materialize,due to a shortage of talent. The United States alone could face a shortage of 140,000 to 190,000 people with deep analytical skills,as well as 1.5 million managers that know how to use big data.
PBL Scarcely Adopted
As buzzwords usually go,most schools are trying to be part of the conversation by either adopting or implementing those methods in their schools. Most schools declare in their website some sort of implementation of project-based or problem-based learning or any other trending methodology that everyone is talking about. Yet in most cases,all that is left of the effort,is the narrative on the website and many feelings of frustration that teachers experienced while trying to make project-based learning work in their classroom. Despite mounting evidence that project-based learning is effective in building deep understanding,raising academic achievement and encouraging student motivation to learn,only roughly 1% of US schools are committed to teaching with it and according to a national study,only one in five classrooms in high school learn deeply. Why is it so difficult to implement project-based learning or any of the trending methods that the education world is engaged with. Continue reading How Can Education Address Its Most Pressing Need
By Miriam Bogler October 16,2015
The headlines about the latest OECD report were loud and clear:“Computers do not improve pupil results.” These controversial headlines were the outcome of a study published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) examining the impact of school technology on international test results such as the PISA test taken in more than 70 countries. The study concluded that investing heavily in school computers and classroom technology does not improve students’ performance and that students using computers and tablets very often tend to do worse than those who use them moderately. For an organization such as the OECD,whose declared mission is that people of all ages can develop the skills to work productively and satisfyingly in the jobs of tomorrow,this conclusion sounds almost like blasphemy. When looked at only from the perspective of these headlines,it sounds as if the OECD does not believe in advancing into the 21st century and that they joined the ‘going back to the basics’ movement. Continue reading Did the OECD Turn Against Technology?
By Miriam Bogler August 22,2015
I don’t like tests. I have never been very good at it. I get extremely anxious in tests,making me forget half of the things I studied. Throughout the years I got used to them and performed better,but I never thought much of them. I could never understand what was the purpose of doing them when a few minutes after taking the test I forgot everything I learned. Tests were brought to my attention again when I heard that parents in some communities have formed “opt-out” groups,removing their children from federally mandated and district-required tests because they thought that their children were tested too frequently and spent too much time taking them. My doubts about testing surfaced again,particularly because modern jobs require employees to have a new set of skills,such as critical thinking,problem solving,creativity and collaboration,that are difficult to assess with traditional tests. Assessment does not stop when we graduate from school,it goes on differently. In the workplace,we are assessed based on the items we produce and the skills we applied in producing them. No one quizzes us at the end of the day to see how much we learned that day. Nonetheless,learning happens daily and it accumulates to a body of experience that helps us perform our jobs better. So,if the ultimate goal of school is to get kids ready for careers,why focus on tests that do not result in assessing the skills that society values today–entrepreneurial capability,effective communication,rapid application of recent scientific advances in new products and processes,and creativity. Continue reading Do We Really Need Testing to Learn?
By Miriam Bogler July 17,2015
Computer programming is hot again. Not like in the 80s,when Seymour Papert’s Logo programming became popular for several years and then declined when the education world failed to see the evolving technological revolution that was taking place in daily life. This time the movement to teach kids to code carries with it a sense of urgency. Around the world,students of all levels of education are getting acquainted with the basics of coding. Estonia is teaching first graders to create their own computer games. In England,all students are exposed to a revamped computing curriculum focusing on new programming skills starting at age 5. In the United States,Code.org has persuaded 28 million people to try programming in its “An Hour of Code” program. The reasons mentioned most are practical in nature,such as students’ future career prospects or finding qualified workers for the technology industry,as well as big reasons,such as the country’s economic competitiveness. However,one of the most important reasons for learning programming relates to improving problem-solving skills and enhancing creativity–skills that are in great demand these days. As Steve Jobs once said “Everybody in this country should learn to program a computer…because it teaches you how to think.” Yet,this is the least-mentioned,studied,or understood reason. Continue reading Why We Need to Think More Like Programmers
By Miriam Bogler June 18,2015
About a month ago I was intrigued to read that Finland was about to embark on one of the most radical education reform programs ever undertaken by a nation state–scraping traditional “teaching by subject” in favor of “teaching by topic”. It was big news because Finland is the first nation to realize that they need to rethink education to equip students with the skills that are necessary for industry and modern society. As revolutionary as it may sound,it was not a great surprise. In the 1970s,Finland’s leaders realized that in order to modernize and be able to be competitive,education reform was the only thing that could save their country from being left behind. They understood that a higher level of excellence could only be achieved with highly educated teachers. What followed was a complete reboot of their teacher training colleges,making them so highly competitive,that only the best and the brightest students were accepted. These days they are one of the top scoring nations in the PISA test and many countries have made pilgrimages to Helsinki in the hope of identifying the secret of their success. What drives them there is the understanding that unless they put more effort into improving education and instilling students with the skills necessary to compete in the global economy,they might be left behind. Continue reading Changing Old Habits is Difficult,But Necessary to Stay Competitive
By Miriam Bogler April 23,2015
We are constantly faced with problem solving situations at work and in daily life,which makes problem solving one of the most important skills that students can learn. In an economy that heavily relies on expert thinking and complex communication,the need to posses those deep learning skills,which consist of problem-solving,critical thinking,communication,collaboration and innovation,is essential. Schools have tried several approaches to address the need,most important of which are project-based learning (PBL),social media,and games. Each proven by research to be effective in improving learning,but neither has generated the learning outcomes that improves student ranking on the PISA test from its current average state to the top. In most of these approaches,the process of solving problems is not directly attempted. It is assumed that students will have to solve problems,as part of their engagement with these methods. However,the fact that in a deep learning study conducted by the American Institute for Research,students did not show improvement in complex problem solving,communication,and conceptual understanding,indicates that something is missing in our approach to problem solving.
Why has the field of education largely ignored how to learn to solve problems? One of the main reasons is because most contemporary research and theory in problem solving claims that problem solving skills are domain and context specific (Jonassen,2004). That means that within a domain or a context,problems vary in terms of their structuredness,complexity and dynamicity. Christine M. Massey,one of the NRC committee members and the education director for the Institute for Research in Cognitive Science at the University of Pennsylvania,says that “it’s not the case that you can just practice up a set of generic skills and apply that in a certain area. You have to do it on top of a well-founded knowledge base. We really just don’t know how to get that cross-discipline deep transfer.”Schools don’t find it feasible to teach so many types of problems especially complex problems,which also explains why most common problems that students solve in schools are well-structured problems–consisting only of few variables compared to the multiple variables and factors that an ill-structured problem consists of. Continue reading Why is Problem Representation So Important for Problem Solving?